Secondary sources used in developing No Turning Back

Chafe, William Henry, Raymond Gavins, and Robert Rodgers Korstad. Remembering Jim Crow: African Americans Tell about Life in the Segregated South. New York: New Press, in association with Lyndhurst Books of the Center for Documentary Studies of Duke University, 2001.

Civil Rights Movement Archive,

Crosby, Emilye.  A Little Taste of Freedom: The Black Freedom Struggle in Claiborne County, Mississippi. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005

Crosby, Emilye (editor). Civil Rights History from the Ground Up: Local

Struggles, A National Movement. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011

Curtis, Christopher Paul. The Watsons Go to Birmingham – 1963. New York: Yearling, 1995

Digital History: America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s,

Dittmer, John. Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1994

Evers-William, Myrlie, Evers, Medgar, and Marable, Manning. The Autobiography of Medgar Evers: A Hero’s Life and Legacy Revealed Through His Writings, Letters, and Speeches. New York: Basic Books, 2006.

Gates, Henry Louis & Maria Tatar (editors). The Annotated African American Folktales. New York: Liveright, 2017.

Hampton, Henry, and Fayer, Steve. Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s Through the 1980s. New York: Bantam Books, 1990

Hill, Karlos K, and David Dodson. The Murder of Emmett Till. Graphic History Series. New York: Oxford University Press, 2021

Hodges, John O. Delta Fragments: The Recollections of a Sharecropper’s Son. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 2013

Holland, Endesha Mae. From the Mississippi Delta. New York:  Simon and Schuster, 1997. 

Holsaert, Faith S. et al. Hands on the Freedom Plow: Personal Accounts by Women in SNCC. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Jordan, David L. David L. Jordan: From the Mississippi Cotton Fields to the State Senate, A Memoir. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2014.

Lewis, John; Aydin, Andrew; and Powell, Nate (illustrator). March Trilogy. San Diego, CA: Top Shelf Productions, 2013-2016.

Mills, Kay. This Little Light of Mine: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 2007.

Moody, Anne. Coming of Age In Mississippi. New York: Delta, 2004

Moses, Robert and Charles Cobb. Radical Equations: Civil Rights from Mississippi to the Algebra Project. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.

Moye, J. Todd. Let the People Decide: Black Freedom and White Resistance Movements in Sunflower County, Mississippi, 1945-1986. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004

Payne, Charles M. I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle. Oakland: University of California Press, 2007

Ransby, Barbara. Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Taylor, Mildred.  Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry. New York: Penguin, 1976

Theoharis, Jeanne. A More Beautiful and Terrible History: The Uses and Misuses of Civil Rights History. Boston: Beacon Press, 2018

Watkins, Hollis, with C. Liegh McInnis. Brother Hollis: The Sankofa of a Movement Man. Clinton: Sankofa Southern Publishing, 2015.

Wiles, Deborah. Revolution. New York: Scholastic, 2014

Theoharis, Jeanne and Komozi Woodard (editors). Groundwork: Local Black Freedom Movements in America. New York, New York University Press, 2005


Online, Film, and Audio Resources

Mississippi Civil Rights Museum,

Eyes on the Prize. Created by Henry Hampton.  Blackside, 1987-1990 

Freedom Song (DVD). Directed by Phil Alden Robinson. 2007.

Freedom Summer. Written, Produced and Directed by Stanley Nelson. New York: Firelight Films, 2014 

John Lewis: Good Trouble.  Directed by Dawn Porter.  New York: Magnolia Pictures, 2020

Let the World See. Directed by Jeanmarie Condon and Fatima Curry. New York: ABC News, 2022

Library of Congress Exhibition: The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom,

Mississippi: A Self Portrait. Produced and Directed by Frank De Felitta. New York: NBC News, 1966, 

Mississippi History Now: “When Youth Protest: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement, 1955-1970,″

Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture (Defending Freedom, Defining Freedom; A Changing America, 1968 and Beyond)

SNCC Digital Gateway,

The Story of Greenwood, Mississippi. Produced and Directed by Guy Carawan. New York: Folkways Records and Service Corporation, 1965 

The Streets of Greenwood. Co-Directed by Jack Willis, John Reavis, and Fred Wardenburg. 1963. 


Primary Sources

Chicago Defender, ProQuest Historical African American Newspapers

Greenwood Commonwealth, 

Oral history interviews conducted by Joseph Sinsheimer as an undergraduate student at Duke University in the 1980s, with grant support from the Lyndhurst Foundation, particularly the interviews of Sam Block, Aaron Johnson, and June Johnson, available at

Address given by Rev. Joseph H. Jackson to the 84th Annual Session of the National Baptist Convention, on Sept. 10, 1964, available at 

Recordings of mass meetings in Greenwood and Jackson, Mississippi, by Moses Moon and Guy Carawan, available at the Smithsonian Institution, Virtual Archives:*%3A*&i=0#ref18*%3A*&i=0#ref85*%3A*&i=0 


Unpublished Sources

Bobby J. Smith II’s article entitled “Food and the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement: re-reading the 1962-1963 Greenwood Food Blockade,” available at (paywall) — and his online article entitled “The Greenwood Food Blockade: The White Citizens’ Council, SNCC, and the politics of food access,” available at

2017 Anna-Morgan Leonards’ thesis entitled “Tearing at the Seams: White Supremacy, Civil Rights, and Mississippi’s Secession Day, March 1961,” available at

2019 Travis Wright’s thesis entitled, “The Chicago Area Friends of SNCC, the Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, and the Chicago Struggle for Freedom During the 1960s,” available at